Food safety and cold storage
1. Food safety and cold storage
Food borne disease and poisoning can adversely affect both the public health and the country's economy if hygiene rules are not adhering to the production, storage and consumption of foodstuffs.
Among the factors that cause this type of foodborne health problems, microorganisms are located in the first place. In the assessment of the issue, even in developed countries like the US and Canada, food-borne microorganisms are reported to cause billions of dollars of losses every year.
Today, there is a rise in food-borne disease and poisoning cases for various reasons, such as the production of ready-to-eat food and outside eating habits and the production of new types of foodstuffs. In addition to these factors, the regular recording of cases, especially in developed countries, ensures that more realistic valuations are being made daily.
On the other hand, the production of new types of foodstuffs, the increase in import and export opportunities, the reach of the wider masses of food, the new information about microorganisms every day as a result of the introduction of innocuous previously known as harmless Microorganisms can lead to the forefront, and microorganisms that are not unique to that country can cause significant problems.
The food poisoning caused by microorganisms is usually revealed by symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fever within 2-36 hours following the consumption of active foodstuffs and usually lasts 1-7 days depending on the person's resistance. Serious health problems may arise, depending on the type of microorganism, the number and the immune system of the person, which may be acute or chronic.
Other hazards affecting food safety are chemically (various chemicals that are not used in the field/farm and during the processing of foods in appropriate and recommended conditions) or physical (stone, nails, glass and metal parts, cores, etc.) is grouped.
I. Microorganisms: Microorganisms are micro-sized organisms that are not visible to the naked eye but are examined under a microscope. bacteria, yeast, mold and viruses are among the most important microorganisms in terms of safety and quality in foods. Apart from these, some algae, protozoan and parasites also constitute other groups of organisms that are located within the field of examination of food microbiology.
bacteria, yeast, mold and viruses are of great importance in terms of foods for various reasons, such as food-borne disease and food degradation factors, their use in food additives and food additive production. bacteria, mold and viruses are the main disease factors in food origin. The vast majority of bacteria, mold and yeast are the main food degradation factors.
Microorganisms can be transmitted to foods in different ways. Other than natural microflora, foodstuffs can be subjected to contamination from a wide range of external sources such as air, soil, water, wastes, people, food additives, insects, equipment and packaging material. The type and level of contamination relates directly to the hygiene condition during the processing of foods.
Microorganisms develop at a certain rate depending on ambient conditions, types and species. After a period of time in the environment, the reduction of nutrient elements, the formation of toxic metabolites and other changes that arise in ambient conditions, decrease in the reproductive rates of microorganisms and eventually the deaths emerge. The four basic stages of development of microorganisms in normal conditions are given in Figure 1.1. These can be defined as (i) Adaptation/adaptation, (ii) Rapid development, (iii) pause, (iv) death phases.
Ii. Risky food groups: some food groups are very suitable environments from the suffering of the proliferation of microorganisms. The foods contained in this scope are meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, water urances. It is a water that is consumed raw and is not suitable for drinking and using vegetables and fruits that grow close to the soil.
Iii. Pathogenic bacteria: disease-factor microorganisms are defined as pathogenic organisms. Some pathogenic bacteria are able to produce toxic compounds (infectious agents) on foods (intoxication of bacteria or organisms after they are taken to the body). Bacteria in Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocoliti, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, S. Flexnuri, Enterovirulant Escherichia coli. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, C. botulinum, and Bacillus cereus form the main pathogenic organisms.
Although a food substance contains pathogenic microorganisms or toxins that may cause illness or poisoning, a significant change in taste, odor and appearance is not always observed.
Iv. Distortion-causing microorganisms: the degradation factor is that the microorganisms multiply on foods, cause color and structure degradation, the formation of unpleasant scents, and the nutritional value of food losses. For example, some yeast, mold, pseudomonas. Some organisms, such as Achromobacıter, Flavobacterium, Alj'genes, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Lactobacillus, are causing food degradation.